Allah sent the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as mercy for humanity and all times. Every word spoken by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) provides guidance and direction for the entire universe, even until eternity. In the present era, the sermon and farewell speech of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH contain several facts that provide humanity with the means to survive, and the principles for permanence lie in hard work.
Given the present times, where the world has become a breeding ground for discrimination, hatred, injustice, oppression, and lawlessness, the golden words from the Prophet Muhammad's (PBUH) last sermon can address these issues.
The Muslim world has a significant responsibility to become fully committed to the inspiration of human rights and become a means of guidance for other nations and religions.
On the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah, during the Hajj pilgrimage, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) conveyed a message of unity to a gathering of over one hundred and forty thousand Muslims at the mountain of Arafat. After praising and glorifying Allah, he conveyed a message of concord that contains vital points present for the guidance of all of us.
"O, people! I command you to fear Allah and steer you to obey Him. Listen to me carefully because I may never meet you in this place again. O, people! You are all descendants of Adam and Eve, and Adam was made of clay. No Arab has any superiority over a foreigner; no Arab has any superiority over a foreigner; no white has any superiority over a black; and no black has any superiority over a white. Superiority, if any, is only based on righteousness."
"O, people! God Almighty has forbidden usury. Allah has declared usury haram (not allowed), and I declare all usury as forbidden from today. However, you have the right to take your original amount. Do not oppress one another; otherwise, you will be persecuted on the Day of Judgment."
"O people, every ritual in the era of ignorance was trampled under my feet. Verily, I forgive the first blood of my family. Don't go astray after me and start beating each other's necks. You have to appear before God, and He will answer you for your deeds."
"O, people! You respect each other's lives, wealth, and honour until the Day of Resurrection. Just as this day (of 'Arafa), this month (Dhu al-Hijjah), and this city (Makkah).
"O, people! Whoever has the trust of another should return it to its owner. Listen carefully: Satan will no longer be worshipped in Arabia. And if you follow Satan, he will be pleased. Therefore, do not allow satanic doubts to come near you. Listen carefully so that those of you who are present convey these things to those absent. Later, people may remember and protect these things better than those here."
"O, people! I have left with you something that, if you hold fast to it, you will never go astray after me. That is the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). After me, neither a prophet nor messenger nor a new nation will come after you."
Listen, people, one must refrain from exaggeration, as those who have come before us have perished due to this act. Thus, I implore you to heed my words and avoid such actions.
O fellow beings, fear Allah in all matters concerning women, whom He has made permissible for you as your witnesses, and take them under your protection. Remember that you have the same rights over your women as they have over you. It is crucial to comprehend that every Muslim is a brother to another Muslim and that all Muslims are one nation. Moreover, taking anything from his brother without their explicit consent and pleasure is not permissible. You must also ensure that you do not engage in self-abuse or abuse of others.
Furthermore, it is of utmost importance that you take care of your slaves, feeding them the same food you eat and clothing them with the same garments you wear.
O Muslims, be aware that Allah Almighty has appointed a portion of His inheritance for each heir, which they must receive. Therefore, you mustn't bequeath your belongings in such a manner that an heir receives more than their share. If you intend to make a will for a stranger, it is crucial to note that the percentage allotted to the stranger, who is not even your relative, should not exceed one-third of your inheritance.
Understanding that virtuous criminals are accountable for their actions is essential. Moreover, it is vital to comprehend that a son is not liable for their father's crimes, nor is a father responsible for their son's actions.
Listen attentively, my fellow beings, and worship your Lord by establishing five daily prayers, observing the Ramadan fasts, and paying zakat (the mandatory contribution) of your wealth with utmost pleasure. Furthermore, it is essential to obey your ruler so that you may enter the paradise of your Lord.
After conveying these words, Muhammad PBUH pointed towards the congregation and asked, "Have I conveyed God's message?" to which they all replied, "Yes."
When Muhammad PBUH concluded his sermon, Allah Almighty revealed verse 3 of Chapter 5 of the Holy Quran: "This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you, and have approved for you Islam as religion."
Thinkers Page was founded in 2022 by two professionals, Usama Zulfiqar and Muhammad Aslam Ch, to offer their opinions and thoughts on numerous subjects that affect human lives and society at large.